Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL)

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The fast growth, the location, the destructive nature of the lesion, and the age and gender of the patient are all supportive of a diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma; for that reason, it should be on the differential diagnosis. The histology, however, is not supportive of BL.

Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), also known as African Jaw Lymphoma, was first described in children of Kampala, Uganda. This lesion is also described outside Africa, including in the U.S.A. Burkitt's lymphoma is classified into three types: Endemic (African); Sporadic (Non-endemic); and Immunodeficiency-associated. The sporadic form of BL is most commonly described in the United States. Burkitt's lymphoma presents clinically as a rapidly-growing tumor mass and is more common in the maxilla than the mandible. It is also more common in males by a ratio of 3:1 with an age range of 10-12 years of age. The endemic African type is a very rapidly growing and destructive lesion that occurs as a jaw neoplasm in up to 70% of cases. Its location is usually in the maxilla, but sometimes all four quadrants are involved. The average age of patients with this condition is 7 years. These patients have elevated titer to Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). The Sporadic type generally involves lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue, and/or visceral organs, especially the abdomen. Jaw involvement is reported but uncommon. These patients occasionally demonstrate EBV antigen titers.